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Prophet Muhammad ᴾᴮᵁᴴ – The prophet of mercy

Prophet Muhammad ᴾᴮᵁᴴ

Prophet Muhammad ᴾᴮᵁᴴ:
“Kindliness and cordiality toward people is haif of wisdom.”

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The Holy Quran


The Holy Quran

The Quran (English pronunciation: /kɔrˈɑːn/) (Arabic: القرآن‎), literally meaning “the recitation”. Qur’an or Quran is the last revealed word of God (Allah), is the primary source of every Muslim’s faith and practice. The Quran was verbally revealed by Allah to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) through the angel Gabriel, gradually over a period of 23 years. The Quran is the only revealed book that has been protected by Allah from distortion or corruption.

God determined a kind of miracle for each prophet and the miracle of the prophet MUhammad (PBUH) is Quran. It deals with all the subjects that concern human beings, wisdom, doctrine, worship, science, life style, instructive stories, the story of the other prophets, woman, law, transactions, etc., but its basic theme is the relationship between God and His creatures.  At the same time, it provides guidelines and detailed teachings for a just society, proper human conduct, and an equitable economic system.

Note that the Quran was revealed to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in Arabic only,  So, any Quranic translation, either in English or any other language, is neither the original Quran, nor a version of the Quran, but rather it is only a translation of the meaning of the Quran.

How the holy Quran is revealed?

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was elected by God to be the last prophet, as it was prophesied in other Abrahamic books. After 3 years, in Ramadan month, at the night of Qadr, when prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was praying in Hira cave (near Mecca) while he had stayed there for several days and nights, Gabriel revealed to him and God revealed Quran by this great angle to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Quran is sent to the prophet during 23 years, gradually.

The Quran’s details

Quran is divided to Surah and Aye (verse). Each Surah consists of several Ayes. Original meaning of Aye is sign or proof but miracle, advice and lesson are the meaning which mentioned for Aye in Quran:

…اَنّى قَدْ جِئْتُکُمْ بِایَةٍ مِنْ رَبِّکُمْ…

I have come to you with a sign from your creator and nurturer…  

 إِنَّ فِی ذَٰلِکَ لَآیَةً لَّکُمْ إِن کُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِینَ

… Surely, therein is a sign for you, if you indeed are believers.

(Surah Al-e-Imran, verse 49)

Limitation of each Surah and Aye is determined by the prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and he had put them in a row according to the date of revelation. Quran is divided into 114 Surah.

The first Aye (verse) that revealed to the prophet was the first Aye of Surah Al-Alaq:

اقْرَ‌أْ بِاسْمِ رَ‌بِّکَ الَّذِی خَلَقَ

“[O, Messenger] recite in the name of Allah who is your creator and nurturer and who created all creatures of the universe.”

 And the last Aye was the Aye 281 of Surah Al Baqareh

وَاتَّقُوا یَوْمًا تُرْ‌جَعُونَ فِیهِ إِلَى اللَّـهِ ۖ ثُمَّ تُوَفَّىٰ کُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَّا کَسَبَتْ وَهُمْ لَا یُظْلَمُونَ

“And be afraid of the day when you shall be brought back to Allah; then every person shall be paid in full what he has earned and none shall be dealt with unjustly.”

It is quoted from Ibn Abbas that this was the last Aye that revealed to the prophet and he put that after the Aye 280 of Surah Al-Baqarah by the order of Gabriel.

The first complete Surah that was revealed was Fatiha and the last complete Surah was Al-Nasr.

The shortest Aye is “مُدْهامَّتانِ” (Surah Al Rahman, verse 64) and the longest is 282 of Al-Baqarah which contains more than 30 terms.

Each Surah begins with بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم (in the name of Allah) except Surah Al-Toubeh.

Surah Al-Naml has 2 “بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم” , one of them is for the beginning and the other related to the prophet Solomon’s letter which had written for Bilqis, the queen of Sheba, and his letter have been began by “بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم”.

The shortest Surah is Al-Kowthar with 3 verses and the longest Surah is Al-Baqarah with 286 verses.

There are some verses In 4 Surah of Quran that are known as Sajdah (Prostration) verses:

Verse 15 of Surah Al-Sajdah, verse 37 Surah Fussilat, verse 62 Surah Al-Najm, and verse 19 Surah Al-Alaq.

These 4 Surahs are named Aza’em and if anyone read or listens to these verses, it is compulsion to prostrate after finishing the verse, right away.

“Makki” and “Madani” Surahs

Verses and Surahs of Quran are divided into main category, Makki (take place in Mecca) and Madani (take place in Medina). This division helps researches more and better. As it is said before, Quran is revealed during 23 years, through about 13 years of the prophet’s life, in Mecca and the rest in Medina.

Quran is like sea. Ordinary people watch the outside of the sea and they enjoy it. Even people who cannot swim, stay in the shore and enjoy watching and listening the sea. But people, who can swim, go into the deep like divers and just divers are the people who discover unique and worth full things.

In the most Surahs, Quran wants people to think to verses and get the valuable points of them because Quran is the last guideline book that is sent to the last prophet for all people in the whole world.

Quran is a book that can be interpreted in all centuries, clearly and it is just one of the miracles of Quran. This guideline book proves its divinity by itself, so it cannot be written by a human. By looking at the articles you will find some articles about the miracles of the Quran.

The Quran in English, online

We recommend the translation of Ali Quli Qarai

The merciful verses

(Prophet Muhammad (PBUH


Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)

Prophet Muhammad, the mercy and blessings of Allah (God) be upon him, is the man beloved by Muslims and many of non-Muslims.  He is the man who taught us patience in the face of adversity, and taught us to live in this world but seek eternal life in the hereafter.  It was to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) that God revealedthe Quran.  Along with this Book of guidance God sent Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) whose behavior and high moral standards are an example to us all. When Muslims declare their faith in One God, they also declare their belief that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is the final messenger of Allah (God).

When a Muslim hears Prophet Muhammad’s name mentioned they ask Allah to send blessings upon him, it is named salawat (صلوات).  Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was a man, a human being just like any other man, but it is his love for humanity that sets him apart. He longed for Paradise not only for himself but also for all of us.  He wept tears not for himself but for his nation, followers (Ummah امت).

As it is written in the Quran, Muslims also believe in the same Prophets mentioned in Jewish and Christian traditions, including Abraham, Noah, Moses, and Jesus (PBUT), and they believe that all prophets came with the same message – to worship God alone, without partners, sons or daughters.  There is a difference, however, between all other prophets and Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).  Before Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), prophets were sent to particular people in particular places and periods.  Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) however, is the final Prophet and his message is for all of humankind.

Allah tells us in the Quran that He did not send Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) except as a mercy for humankind.  “And [O, messenger] we did send you as a grace to the human society [for their guidance].”  (Surah Al-Anbiya, verse 107)

Allah did not say Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was sent to the people of Arabia, or to men, or to the people of the 7th century.  He made it clear that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was a prophet like no other, one whose message would spread far and wide and be applicable in all places for all times.  Muslims love him, respect him and follow him.  They hold him in such regard that for many it is emotionally painful to see or hear their beloved mentor ridiculed or disrespected.

Throughout history and around the world non-Muslims have shown great respect and honor to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and he is considered influential in both religious and secular matters.  Mahatma Gandhi described him as scrupulous about pledges, intense in his devotion to his friends and followers, intrepid, fearless, and with absolute trust in God and in his own mission.  Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) taught Islam as a way of life, founded an empire, laid down a moral code and instituted a code of law focusing on respect, tolerance and justice.

Muslims do not worship Prophet Muhammad (PBUH); they understand that he is only a man.  However, he is a man worthy of our utmost respect and love.  Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) loved humanity so much that he would weep out of fear for them.  He loved his followers with such deep and profound devotion that God remarked on the depth of his love for us in the Quran.

“Verily, there has come unto you a Messenger (Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)) from amongst yourselves. It grieves him that you should receive any injury or difficulty.  He (Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)) is anxious over you (to be rightly guided, to repent to Allah, and beg Him to pardon and forgive your sins, in order that you may enter Paradise and be saved from the punishment of the Hell-fire, for the believers he is full of pity, kind, and merciful.” (Surah Al-Taubah, verse 128)

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) taught us to love Allah (God) and to obey Him.  He taught us to be kind to each other, to respect our elders, and care for our children.  He taught us that it was better to give than to receive and that each human life is worthy of respect and dignity.  He taught us to love for our brothers and sisters what we love for ourselves.  Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) taught us that families and communities are essential, and he pointed out that individual rights although important are not more important than a stable, moral society.  Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) taught us that men and women are equal in the sight of Allah and that no one person is better than another except in respect to his or her piety and devotion to Allah.

Birth in Mecca

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was born in the city of Mecca in Arabia in the year 570 A.D. (12th Rabi’ al-awwal) He was from a noble family and tribe; He belonged to the Bani Hashim clan, a part of the Quraysh tribe. Tradition places the year of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)’s birth as corresponding with the Year of the Elephant, which is named after the failed destruction of Kaba in Mecca that year by the Aksumite king Abraha who supplemented his army with elephants (Kaba is a building at the center of Islam’s most sacred mosque, in Mecca. It is the most sacred site in Islam. From any point in the world, the direction facing the Kaba is called the Qibla. Muslims pray into direction of Qibla. For the first time, Abraham (PBUH) built it with his son Ismail).

He was an orphan, having lost his father even before his birth, His father, Abdullah, died almost six months before Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was born. He lived with his mother until he was two years old, but when his grandfather, Abd al-Muttalib (from the Bani Hashim clan) found out that Muhammad’s life was in danger, sent him to Halimah (as a foster-mother) and her husband in the deserts. As Muhammad (PBUH) was the last prophet and his signs was written in divine books, so the enemies of God were going to kill him as their ancestors killed the other prophets.

At the age of six, Muhammad (PBUH) lost his biological mother Amina to illness and he became orphaned. For the next two years, he was under the guardianship of his paternal grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, but when Muhammad (PBUH) was eight, his grandfather also died. He then came under the care of his uncle Abu Talib, the new leader of Bani Hashim.

While still in his teens, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) accompanied his uncle on trading journeys to Syria gaining experience in commercial trade, the only career open to Muhammad (PBUH) as an orphan. When Muhammad (PBUH) was either nine or twelve while accompanying the Meccan’s caravan to Syria, he met a Christian monk or hermit named Bahira who is said to have foreseen Muhammad (PBUH)’s career as a prophet of Allah. Bahira warned Muhammad and his uncle, he also knew there were some unbelievers who were going to kill the last prophet.

Due to his upright character and his honesty he acquired the nickname “al-Amin” (Arabic: الامین), meaning “faithful, trustworthy” and “Sadiq” meaning “truthful”.

At the age of 25, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) got married to his wifeKhadijah,, who was the first woman to believe Muhammad as a prophet, so she was the first Muslim woman.

Khadijah was a 40-year-old widow woman from a noble Christian family. She was a wealthy business woman, when she heard about Muhammad al-Amin (Muhammad who is trustworthy) hired him for her trade. But after she saw some signs in him, the signs which was prophesied in the Bible, she got to know that he should be the last prophet. She liked Muhammad (PBUH) and finally she offered a marriage proposal to him. Since Khadijah was a virtues woman, Muhammad (PBUH) accepted her proposal. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) had just one child from lady Khadijah, a daughter, Lady Fatima (PBUH). Lady Fatima (PBUH) was the only child of the prophet, she is one of 14 infallibles. (The prophet Muhammad, Lady Fatima (PBUH) and 12 Imams). She had a main role inImamate.

Several years later, according to a narration collected by historian, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was involved with a well-known story about setting the Black Stone in place in the wall of the Kaba. The Black Stone, a sacred object, had been removed to facilitate renovations to the Kaba. The leaders of Mecca could not agree on which clan should have the honor of setting the Black Stone back in its place. They agreed to wait for the next man to come through the gate and ask him to choose. That man was the 35-year-old Muhammad (PBUH), five years before his first revelation. He asked for a cloth and put the Black Stone in its center. The clan leaders held the corners of the cloth and together carried the Black Stone to the right spot, and then Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) set the stone in place, satisfying the honor of all.

The religion Islam

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) hadn’t been worshiping idols while the most people of Arabia had been doing that. He was believer of the Abraham religion. He had been doing the practice of praying alone for several weeks every year in a cave on Mount near Mecca. During one of his visits to Mount Hira, the angel Gabriel appeared to him in the year 610 A.D, and commanded Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) to recite verses which would later be included in the Quran. Upon receiving his first revelations, he was deeply distressed. After returning home, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was consoled and reassured by Khadijah. He also feared that others would dismiss his claims as being possessed. So he started to preach secretly.

Around 613, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) began to preach to the public (Surah Al-Shu’ara, verse 214) by the order of God. Most Meccan people ignored him and mocked him, though a few became his followers. There were three main groups of early converts to Islam: younger brothers and sons of great merchants; people who had fallen out of the first rank in their tribe or failed to attain it; and the weak, mostly unprotected foreigners.

The opposition in Mecca started when Muhammad delivered verses that condemned idol worship and the Meccan forefathers who engaged in polytheism. However, the Quranic exegesis maintains that it began as Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) started public preaching. As the number of followers increased, he became a threat to the local tribes and rulers of the city, whose wealth rested upon the Kaba, the focal point of Meccan religious life that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) threatened to overthrow. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)’s denunciation of the Meccan traditional religion was especially offensive to his own tribe, the Quraysh, as they were the guardians of the Kaba. The powerful merchants attempted to convince Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) to abandon his preaching by offering him admission into the inner circle of merchants, and establishing his position therein by an advantageous marriage. However, he refused both.

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and his followers, the Muslims, were persecuted severely. They were subjected to torture, imprisonment, and expulsion, economic and social boycotts. Many of them were killed because of their beliefs. But they remained patient and steadfast, and they held onto their religion of Islam. Sumayyah bint Khabbab, a slave of a prominent Meccan leader Abu Jahl, is famous as the first martyr of Islam; killed with a spear by her master when she refused to give up her faith. Bilal, another Muslim slave (black man) was tortured by Umayyah ibn Khalaf who used to place a heavy rock on his chest to force his conversion. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) continued to teach his message to the people in secret and in public.

After 13 years of enduring these conditions, the Muslims immigrated to Medina, a city more than 400 km (260 miles) north of Mecca. This migration of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622 A.D is called “The Hijra”. That day was the first day of “Lunar calendar” for Muslims.

The Muslims established the first Islamic nation in Medina, and were able to practice their religion freely for the first time. As the Muslims began to gain more followers and establish their power in Medina, their old enemies in Mecca became very uneasy. They saw that the balance of power was switching in favor of the Muslims as Arab tribes started to accept Islam. They attacked the Muslims and after several battles, the Muslims gained the upper hand. The Muslims then sent a large and well equipped army to Mecca to end the attacks once and for all. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) instructed his army not to harm anyone who did not engage them in fighting. Upon seeing the strength of the Muslim army, the people of Mecca surrendered without fighting. The Muslims entered Mecca once again, this time in a position of power. They entered to the city in peace. It was the promise of God to Muslims.

The Muslim captured many warders, including many of those who had persecuted, tortured and killed Muslims for 13 years before they immigrated to Medina. The warders were gathered in front of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). He asked them: “What do you think I will do to you?” Knowing how they had treated Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and his followers, the warders were afraid that their fate would be death as a punishment for their crimes. However, Muhammad (PBUH) said: “You are all free to go!”

After this point, the spread of Islam became even faster. Arab tribes began to come to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) one by one to declare their Islam. Within ten years, despite of several attacks by enemies, Islam had spread throughout Arabia and some other countries and became one of the main powers in the Middle East.

According to the Quran, one of the main roles of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is to warn the unbelievers of their eschatological punishment (Surah Saad, verse 70/ Surah Al-An’am, verse 19). Occasionally the Quran did not explicitly refer to Judgment day but provided examples from the history of extinct communities and warns Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)’s contemporaries of similar calamities (Surah Fussilat, verse 13–16).

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) did not only warn those who rejected God’s revelation, but also dispensed good news for those who abandoned evil, listening to the divine words and serving God. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)’s mission also involves preaching monotheism: The Quran commands Muhammad (PBUH) to proclaim and praise the name of his Lord and instructs him not to worship idols or associate other deities with God (Allah).

The key themes of the early Quranic verses included the responsibility of man towards his creator; the resurrection of the dead, God’s final judgment followed by vivid descriptions of the Hell and pleasures in Paradise; and the signs of Allah in all aspects of life. Religious duties required of the believers at this time were few: belief in God, asking for forgiveness of sins, offering frequent prayers, assisting others particularly those in need, rejecting cheating and the love of wealth (considered to be significant in the commercial life of Mecca), being chased and not to kill newborn girls. Prophet Muhammad is known as the prophet of mercy and kindness.

To know more about Islamic laws refer to “what is Islam?”

To know more about the prophet Muhammad personality and life style, refer to ….

Isra and Mi’raj

In 620 A.D, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) experienced the Isra and Mi’raj, a miraculous journey said to have occurred with the angel Gabriel in one night. At the beginning of the journey, the Isra, he have travelled from Mecca on a winged steed (Buraq) to “Al-Aqsa Mosque” in Jerusalem. Then, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) have toured heaven and hell, and spoke with earlier prophets, such as Abraham, Moses, and Jesus (PBUT), he also could talk with God (Allah) without seeing him, this journey is called Mi’raj. This event was as a spiritual and a physical journey.

Martyrdom and tomb

In 632, at the end of the tenth year after Hijra (migration to Medina), Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) completed his annual Great Pilgrimage, known as HajjThat was then, the Prophet (PBUH) delivered his famous speech, determined his succession (Imam Ali (PBUH)) that known as The Farewell Sermon near the pound of Khum (Qadir Khum). In this sermon, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) advised his followers not to follow certain pre-Islamic customs. He declared that an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab, nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab. Also a white has no superiority over black, nor does a black have any superiority over white except by piety and good action.

Commenting on the vulnerability of women in his society, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) asked his male followers to “be good to women, for they are powerless captives in your households. You took them in Allah’s trust, and legitimated your sexual relations with the Word of God, so come to your senses people, and hear my words …” He told them that they were entitled to discipline their wives but should do so with kindness.

A few months after the farewell pilgrimage, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) fell ill due to poisoning (to see more refer to Articles: “The Martyrdom of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)”) and suffered for several days with fever, head pain, and weakness. He martyred in 632 A.D, in Medina, at the age of 62 or 63. He was buried where he died in his own house. This place is known as Masjid al-Nabawi (the Mosque of the Prophet) now. The Green Dome above the tomb was built in the 13th century, although the green color was added in the 16th century.



Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) accomplished his mission of delivering the message to humanity. He has left us with the holy Qur’an (the word of God) and Ahl Al-Bayt (12 Imams (12 leader) from his progeny). Through his sacrifices and those of his followers, Islam today is the largest and fastest growing religion in the world. One out of every five people in the world is a Muslim. It is for this reason that Michael H. Hart (an astrophysicist born in New York City in 1932), in his book in 1978 “The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History”, ranked Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) as the single most influential person in the history of the world.

After Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)’s martyrdom some Muslims followed his successor, Imam Ali (PBUH), they are known as Shia Muslim. The others followed the caliphs after the prophet (PBUH), they are known as Sunni Muslim. To know more, refer to “Imamate” , “Saqifah” , “1st Imam- Ali (PBUH) ” , “Shia, Sunni, differences“.

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? What is Islam


What is Islam?

God in His mercy had sent messengers to convey us, to different peoples, in different times. Each prophet came with guidance and miracles that were relevant for his time and for his people, but the message was the same: That there is only one God and worship is for him alone.

This “Islam” is the same as the religions brought by all the prophets of God. Islam is the same as the religion of Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus (peace be upon them all) but with more details. God has in His Grace, addressed this issue to man in His final revelation, the Noble Quran.

“Do they seek other than the religion of Allah (God)? When to him submit all creatures in the heavens and on the earth; and to him, they shall all be returned (83). Say [O, messenger]: “we believe in Allah (God) and in what has been sent down to us, and what was sent down to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob and the sons of Jacob and what was given to Moses, Jesus and to [other] messengers from their creator and nurturer; we consider no discrimination between one and another among them and to Allah, we are submitted”. (84)
(Surah Al-e-Imran, verse 83, 84)

Man was to follow each prophet when he came, till the advent of another prophet Thus the latter prophet was followed since there was new guidance relevant to that latter time.  Miracles were also for that time and for those people. All this is evident. For example, when Jesus (PBUH) said to the Children of Israel:

“And I have come to attest what was before me of the Torah and to make lawful to you certain things that were forbidden before; I have come to you with a Sign from your creator And Nurturer, so fear from the disobedience of Allah’s commands and obey me.” (Surah Al-e-Imran, verse 50)

Consequently, God has sent the prophet Muhammad (PBUH) as His last messenger to mankind. This implies that he must come with a complete and clear guidance, and a clear proof, for all humanity and all times till the Last Day. Otherwise the message is void. Also, the message must be confirming the previous messengers of before. The revelation, guidance, and miracle he received is the Quran.

Now, let’s see more about this last religion, Islam.

Islam (/ˈɪslɑːm/; Arabic: اسلام) is a verbal noun originating from the root “S-L-m” which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, safeness and peace. It is an Abrahamic religion articulated by the Quran. It is revealed to the prophet Muhammad (PBUH), the last prophet of God. The adherent of Islam is called Muslim. Today, Muslims are known in 2 main groups: Shia and Sunni.

In Islam God is called Allah. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance “Tanri” in Turkish, “Khodā” in Persian or Ḵẖudā in Urdu.

Allah is described in Surah Al-Ikhlas in the Quran as: “Say [O, Messenger!]: “Allah is the one and the only creator (1) Allah is the Absolute independent,[free from all attachment](2) Neither he has a son nor a daughter, nor he is born of any other being (3) And there is no equal, no match and no mate for Allah, the Almighty (4).” (Surah Al-Ikhlaas)

Allah is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God. In addition, Muslims and Jews repudiate the Christian doctrine of the Trinity and divinity of Prophet Jesus (PBUH), comparing it to polytheism.

In Islam, Muslims are not expected to visualize God. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being “Al-Rahman”, meaning “The Compassionate” and “Al-Rahim”, meaning “The Merciful”.

In Islam, Allah is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in need or distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, “…And [through the embracing knowledge] we are nearer to him [Human] than his jugular vein.” (Surah Qaf, verse 16)

Also, the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by Allah’s sheer command, “…Be, and it comes to existence,”

General Principles of Islam

In Islam there are 5 main principles are called Osul-e-Din (the principles of the religion):

  • Tawhid (Shia and Sunni belief)
  • Nabuwwah (Shia and Sunni belief)
  • Ma’ad (Shia and Sunni belief)
  • Adalah (just Shia Belief)
  • Imamate (just Shia Belief)

Tawhid (Oneness)

In Islam, Tawhid means to assert the unity of God, it is not just unity of Allah Almighty but also Uniqueness, as defined in Quran Surah 112(Al-Ikhlas), He is not born of anyone nor gave birth to any one, nor is any one like Him. The opposite of Tawhid is “Shirk”, which means “Association” or “Partnership” in Arabic. In Muslims view, polytheism and idolatry is known as “Shirk”.

Tawhid is the most important principle that each Muslim must believe it. Also, Tawhid is mentioned in the other Abrahamic religions. (Uniqueness and unity of God is distorted in Christian religion)

Nabuwwah (Prophet Hood)

“Nabuwwah” means “Prophet Hood”. It comes from the world “Nabi” that is mentioned in Old Testament too, as the meaning of God’s messenger. Nabi denotes that God has appointed Prophets and Messengers to teach mankind the religion. Religion is the perfect system of how to live in “peace” or “submission to God”. Prophets are Messengers which are appointed by God to bring the message of God to people and spread that message while the Imam (leader) is appointed by God to protect that message since ordinary people will fail to do so.

If people were left with the message alone, the true message could not survive long and would have undergone changes. Imams were therefore appointed to take care of the message and prevent people from going astray after the last prophet.

Nabi receives inspiration in three ways. Sometimes, God reveals directly to his heart. Sometimes, God reveals facts on something such as mountain or tree (like Moses who Allah spoke to him by a tree). The third way of revelation is sending messages to the Nabi (prophet) by an angle.

Ma’ad (The Day of Resurrection and judgment)

Yaum al-Qiyamah or “Day of the Resurrection“, also known as “Day of the Account”, “Day of the Gathering”, and the “Great Announcement”.

Ma’ad is a fundamental tenet of faith in Islam. After the annihilation of this world, Allah will raise mankind for Judgment. The trials and tribulations of Resurrection Day are detailed in the Quran.

In Surah al-Zalzalah describes this as, “then he who has done a particle-weight of good shall see it, [and shall receive the reward for it] (7). And he who has done a particle-weight of evil shall see it [and shall receive the recompense for it] (8).” (Surah Al-Zilzal, verse 7, 8)

Also, The Quran lists several sins that can condemn a person to hell, such as disbelief in God, and dishonesty; however, the Quran makes it clear God will forgive the sins of those who repent. Deeds, such as charity, prayer and compassion towards animals, will be rewarded with entry to heaven. Muslims view heaven as an eternal place of joy and bliss, with Quranic references describing its features and the physical pleasures to come.

They believe the time of “Resurrection Day” is preordained by Allah but unknown to man. Every human, Muslim and non-Muslim alike, is held accountable for his or her deeds and are judged by Allah accordingly.

In fact, Allah revive human to reward benefactors and punish wicked as he has promised in all Abrahamic religions especially in the Quran.

Adalah (justice)

Adalah is described in Shia theology as one of the principles of Islam. It comes from the root “A-D-l” as the meaning of justice. Adalah is a quality of Allah that includes following meanings:

  • It means everything Allah does is based on benefit and wisdom
  • It means all human are the same before Allah and they are equal, no one is superior than the others unless by virtue
  • It means Justice, i.e. Allah never ignores even the smallest positive or negative deeds of mankind
  • It means Allah has created every creature in right position, by materials that exactly is needed for that creature and finally, there are an equality and appropriateness through all creatures and phenomena in the whole universe
  • It means the creation of the whole universe is based on a purpose and nothing is aimless or vain

 Imamate (Leadership)

As it is mentioned before, Imam should continue the revolution of the prophet and be leader after the prophet. Islam prescribes very high qualification for a divine leader. He should be the most knowledgeable, the wisest, and the most gallant of all people. He should also be immune from every kind of sin, mistake and error. So, Imams are determined by God, before and their names and their signs is revealed to the prophet. This is just described in Shia theology as another principles of Islam.

Other important issues in Islam

Testimony (Shahadah)

The Shahadah (شهاده), which is the basic creed of Islam that must be recited with the specific statement:

اَشهدُ انْ لا اِلٰهَ الا الله و اَشهدُ انَّ محمّداً رسولُ الله

‘ash’hadu ‘an-lā ilāha illā-llāhu wa ‘ash’hadu ‘anna muhammadan rasūlu-llāh“, “I testify that there are no deities other than Allah alone and I testify that Muhammad is his Messenger.”

This testament is a foundation for all other beliefs and practices in Islam. Muslims must repeat the shahadah in prayer, and non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the creed.

Prayer (Salah/صلاه)

Daily prayers, called Ṣalah or Ṣalat in Arabic, Namaz (نماز) in Persian, must be performed five times a day. Salat is intended to focus the mind on God, and is seen as a personal communication with him that expresses gratitude and worship. Salat is compulsory but flexibility in the specifics is allowed depending on circumstances. The prayers are recited in the Arabic language, and consist of verses from the Quran. The prayers are done with the chest in direction of the Qibla (Kaba, Mecca) though in the early days of Islam.

A Mosque is a place of worship for Muslims, who often refer to it by its Arabic name, “Masjid”. The word “Mosque” in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated to Islamic worship, although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller, privately owned mosque and the larger, “collective mosque” (Masjid jāmi). Although the primary purpose of the mosque is to serve as a place of prayer, it is also important to the Muslim community as a place to meet and study. Al-Masjid al-Nabawi the Prophet’s Mosque in Medina was also a place of refuge for the poor. Modern mosques have evolved greatly from the early designs of the 7th century, and contain a variety of architectural elements such as Minarets.

Fasting

Fasting, (Arabic: صوم‎ ṣawm), Rouzeh/روزه in Persian, avoiding from food and drink (among other things) must be performed from dawn to dusk during the month of Ramadan (Lunar month). The fast is to encourage a feeling of nearness to Allah, and during it Muslims should express their gratitude for and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, and think of the needy. Sawm is not obligatory for several groups for whom it would constitute an undue burden. For others, flexibility is allowed depending on circumstances, but missed fasts usually must be made up quickly.

Alms-giving

“Zakat” (Arabic: زکاة‎ ) is giving a fixed portion of accumulated wealth by those who can afford it to help the poor or needy and for those employed to collect Zakat; also, for bringing hearts together, freeing captives, for those in debt (or bonded labor) and for the (stranded) traveler. It is considered a religious obligation that the well-off owe to the needy because their wealth is seen as a “trust from God’s bounty”. The Quran and the Hadith(the quotes of Prophets and Imams) also urge a Muslim to give even more as an act of voluntary alms-giving called Sadaqah (صدقه).

Hajj Pilgrimage

The pilgrimage, called the Hajj (Arabic: حج‎) has to be done during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah in the city of Mecca. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it must make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime. Rituals of the Hajj include: spending a day and a night in the tents in the desert plain of Mena, then a day in the desert plain of Arafat praying and worshiping Allah, following the footsteps of Prophet Abraham (PBUH). Then spending a night out in the open, sleeping on the desert sand in the desert plain of Muzdalifah, then moving to Jamarat, symbolically stoning the Devil ( the symbol of Devil is Obelisk) recounting Prophet Abraham’s actions. Then going to Mecca and walking seven times around Kaba which was built as a place of worship by Prophet Abraham (PBUH), Then walking seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah recounting the steps of Prophet Abraham’s wife, while she was looking for water for her son Ismael in the desert, before Mecca developed into a settlement. The purpose of all is first to be far from all material relations and just think about God, and second to remind Abraham’s sufferings about establishing the religion of God and be thankful that we are not from idolatries.

Jihad

Jihad means “to strive or struggle in the way of Allah”. Depending on the object being a visible enemy, the devil, and aspects of one’s own self (such as sinful desires), different categories of jihad are defined. Jihad, when used without any qualifier, is understood in its military aspect. Jihad also refers to one’s striving to attain religious and moral perfection. Some Muslim, especially Shia, distinguish between the “greater jihad”, which pertains to spiritual self-perfection, and the “lesser jihad”, defined as warfare.

Jihad is the only form of warfare permissible in Islamic law and declared against illegal works, terrorists, criminal groups, rebels, apostates, and leaders or states that oppress innocent people.

Etiquette and diet

Many practices fall in the category of Adaab (behavior) and Islamic dietary laws, or Islamic etiquette. This includes greeting others with “Salam” or “as-salamu `alaykum” (“peace be on to you”), saying Bismillah (“in the name of Allah”) before meals, and preferring to use the right hand for eating and drinking. Islamic hygienic practices mainly fall into the category of personal cleanliness and health. Circumcision of male offspring is also practiced in Islam. Islamic burial rituals include “funeral prayer” over the bathed and enshrouded dead body, and burying it in a grave.

In Islam, guests are known as the friends of Allah and Muslims are wanted to respect their guests and welcoming them as best as possible. Islam wants human to be like brothers and sisters so that help each other, be well-behaved, respect to each other especially to the elders, women and children.

There are some restrictions for Muslims foods include not having pork products, blood, carrion, and alcohol. All meat must come from an herbivorous animal slaughtered in the name of Allah. Permissible Food for Muslims is known as “Halal” food.

Family life

The basic unit of Islamic society is the family, and Islam defines the obligations and legal rights of family members. The father is seen as financially responsible for his family, and is obliged to cater for their well-being. The division of inheritance is specified in the Quran, which states that most of it is to pass to the immediate family, while a portion is set aside for the payment of debts and the making of bequests. Marriage in Islam is a civil contract which consists of an offer and acceptance between two qualified parties in the presence of two witnesses. The groom is required to pay a bridal gift (Mahr) to the bride, as stipulated in the contract.

In Islam, Mother has the main role of children breeding and training, that is why Allah gave a mother mercy and patience (two of his qualities). A Muslim woman should be able to bring honest and nice children up who have advantages for their society, those children can make a family in the future and as a result, we will have an excellent society.

Women in Islam

Status of woman in Islam is incomparable to the other religions or ideologies: In Arabia or some other countries, before Islam, men had been buried alive girls. Women had no rights whatsoever and were treated no better than a commodity. Not only were they enslaved, but they couldn’t also be inherited as a possession. They were subordinate to their fathers, brothers, and husbands.

In Hindu scriptures, the description of a good wife is as follows: “a woman, whose mind, speech and body are kept in subjection, acquires high renown in this world, and, in the next, the same abode with her husband”. It was believed that a woman should cremate when her husband was dead as she was alive.

In Egypt, people were putting a bowl of honey just near the corps of dead men body, not women dead body because they believed just the soul of men would return. Women were not allowed to touch holy books or texts but they were used for scarifying.

In Athens, women were not better off than either the Hindu or the Roman women. Athenian women were always minors, subject to some male – to their father, to their brother, or to some of their male kin. In Roman law a woman was even in historic times completely dependent. If married she and her property passed into the power of her husband. The wife was the purchased property of her husband, and like a slave acquired only for his benefit. A woman could not exercise any civil or public office or could not be a witness, surety, tutor, or curator; she could not adopt or be adopted, or make will or contract.

The woman in Judaism was in the rank of a servant. The father had the right to sell his underage daughter. She had no right to inherit if her father had no male offspring. It is stated in the Old Testament (the distorted Torah) that the woman should not inherit as long as there are males in the family; rather, she is part of the inheritance if her husband dies, and the nearest male relative to the husband would inherit her.

Woman was believed to be the source of evil and sin. They considered her impure especially on the days she was menstruating and whoever touched her during this time became impure for seven days. They blamed her for the expulsion of Adam from paradise, but in Quran, Allah says, Satan fooled both Adam and Eve together and never knows Eve as the reason of expulsion of Adam.

There was widespread Christian belief that the woman had no soul. In 586 A.D, the Council of Macon was held to decide whether the woman was a body that had a base soul or that she did not have a “saved” soul. They made an exception to Mary (PBUH), may God exalt her mention, because she is the mother of Prophet Jesus (PBUH).

Paul declared that the woman is the source of sin, the basis of every evil and the fountainhead of every abominable act. St. Bonaventure said to his disciples, “When you see a woman, you should not think that you saw a human being or even a beastly being. Rather, you saw the devil in person.”

Jews and Christians believe Eva fooled Adam and she was the reason of quieting from heaven, but in Quran it is mentioned that Devil (Satan) fooled both of them and Eva never was the cause of fall from heaven.

In the pre-Islamic period, the Arabs regarded the woman as a piece of property or as rubbish. When the husband died, his guardian would cover the wife of the deceased with his garment and she could not remarry. They used to prevent her from remarrying until the young matrimonial guardian would grow up and then decide whether he wished to marry her or give her in marriage to anyone else and take the dowry as long as she was not his mother. If she was his mother, he would not marry her. The woman had no rights and she did not inherit anything. She was considered a source of humiliation and shame.

Islam prohibited all this and allocated for her a specific share in inheritance. Allah the Almighty Says: “there is a share for men and a share for women from what is left by parents and their relatives as heritage whether the property be small or large, it is a decreed share” (Surah Al-Nissaa, verse 7)

Moreover, the Arabs in the pre-Islamic era did not only deprive the woman of inheritance but also deprived her of life itself. When some of them begot a female child, they would dig a hole and throw her into it and heap dust over her. What is worse and more disgusting is that once, a father was away travelling when his wife gave birth. When he came back, he took his grown up daughter from her mother, dug a hole while she removed the dust from his clothes, and then, took her by surprise, pushed her into the hole, afterward, heaped dust over her while she was screaming for pity. But his heart did not soften for her. This situation is described in the Quran when Allah the Almighty says: “and when the female infant, buried alive, shall be questioned (7). For what sin was she put to death? (8)”   (Surah Al-Takwir, verse 8, 9)

Some mothers used to fear this painful destiny. So, the mother would dig a hole by herself during her pregnancy. If she delivered a girl, she would throw her into the hole in order to save her from the tragedy that would take place when the father would have returned from traveling. Some mothers would strangle their baby daughters after delivering them.

Some fathers’ faces used to turn dark when they received the news that their wives had given birth to a girl because of their intense hatred for girls, and they would be hesitant whether to bury her alive or bear the humiliation and let her live. Allah the Almighty Says: “and when the news of the birth of a female child is broken to one of them, his face darkens and he hides his inward grief and anger (58). He hides himself from his folk shamefully [regarding the news] and he wonders whether he should keep her with contempt, or bury her beneath the dust? Verily, evil is their judgment [regarding such discrimination] (59)   (Surah Al-Nahl, verse 58, 59)

Their hatred for girls was based on two reasons: First, girls do not take part in wars. Second, they feared that the girl may later become a source of shame. Despite their fear of shame, strangely enough, we find that many Arab tribes were quite lenient in the face of prostitution and that they used to force their slave girls into prostitution until Allah the Almighty revealed the verse forbidding this act: “do not force your maids to prostitution when they are chaste just in order to benefit from the perishable goods of this worldly life; and if the slave-girls do such filthy act under compulsion, Allah is the merciful forgiving (33). (Surah Al-Nur, verse 33)

Women in the pre-Islamic era used to expose their adornments and entice men. Noble verses of the Quran were revealed to prohibit Muslim women from imitating the disbelieving women just as Muslim men were prohibited before them from imitating the disbelieving men. Allah the Almighty Says: “And stay very often in your houses; do not exhibit your beauty and ornaments as the manner of the women of the time of ignorance; establish prayer, and pay alms and obey Allah and his messenger. Verily, Allah’s will is to remove away impurity from you, the people of the messenger’s household and to purify you thoroughly (33).” (Al-Ahzab, verse 33)

The Quran dedicates numerous verses to Muslim women, their role, duties and rights. In Quran, woman is named as the relaxation for man, as Allah says: “and of Allah’s signs of power is that he created mates for you from your own kind, [i.e., human being] to seek peace and happiness from one another and he caused love and kindness between you; and in all these there are signs of Allah’s power and divine wisdom for men of thought” (Surah Al-Rum, verse 21).

Allah wants men to care about women, love them, speak them softly, not to strict or hurt them because woman is divine trust. If a man slap or hurt a woman, he should pay atonement to her.

Right to vote, have been given to the women In the United State, by 1920, but the right of voting was given to the women in Islam more around 550 A.D. Islam knows the woman as the base of family and because of that the great responsibility of upbringing is taken on woman shoulders, i.e. motherhood.

Allah gave to Prophet Mohammad (PBUH), a daughter as the only child, Lady Fatima (PBUH), when woman was known as nothing among Arabian people. Islam encourages women to educate and take part in social activities. In addition Allah put 12 Imams in his daughter generation and it also proves the importance of woman in Islam.

In Islam, a Muslim woman can only have sex after her “Nikah” (lawful marriage contract), with one Muslim man; sex is permitted to her only with her husband. There are a lot of rules about sex in Islam; also importance of woman’s satisfaction is mentioned. Islam admonishes Muslim women to dress modestly in garments that do not reveal the extremities to any man other than their husband, father, certain male family members, small children and male slaves free of sexual needs. The Quran specify limitations of covering by clothes, however, do not specify particulars, style or design of the clothing and other dress forms; clothing has varied widely across Islamic regions. Styles have changed over the centuries.

In Islam, there is no difference between men and women’s relationship to God; they receive identical rewards and punishments for their conduct. Many classical Islamic scholars, supported female leadership. In early Islamic history, some women took part in political activities.

Women have played an integral part in the development and spiritual life of Islam since the inception of Islamic civilization in the seventh century A.D. Lady Khadijah (PBUH), a businesswoman who became the Prophet Muhammad’s wife, was also the first Muslim woman. There have been a large number of female saints throughout the Islamic world.

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PROPHET OF ISLAM IN THE WORD OF THE WISE


Prophet of Islam in the word of the wise

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The most influential figure in history

Michael Hart, born in April 28, 1932, is a physicist, a mathematician at Cornell University, holds a doctorate in astrophysics from the University of Pearson, juris consult, an expert in computer science and a faithful American

.He published a book by the title of “100” in 1978. This book ranks 100 people who were the most influential persons in history

.More than 500,000 copies of this book have been sold all over the world since then and it has been translated into 15 languages

.The first rank belongs to prophet “Muhammad” (PBUH) in this book

He has written a detailed explanation about the reason why he has dedicated the first rank to “Muhammad” in the second print of his book that an abstract of it can be read below

: He says

“This choice may surprise some people but he was the only man in history who was supremely successful on both the religious and secular levels. Today, thirteen centuries after his death, his influence is still powerful and pervasive

Since there are roughly twice [the latest estimate is that there are more than one thousand million Muslims in the world] as many Christians as Muslims in the world, but “St. Paul” was the main developer of Christian theology and its principal proselytizer. “Muhammad”, however, was responsible for both the theology of Islam and its main ethical and moral principles. It is probable that the relative influence of “Muhammad” on Islam has been larger than the combined influence of “Jesus Christ” and “St. Paul” on Christianity. He may well rank as the most influential political leader of all time

From the 100, a Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History

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Goethe, the famous German poet has composed a poem by the title of “the song of Muhammad” after knowing Islam and its messenger. This poem is composed from the perspective of the prophet’s closest relatives; Imam Ali (PBUH) (his cousin, son-in-low and successor) and Lady Fatima (PBUH) (his daughter and his only offspring). Goethe has described all steps of Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) call and guidance among the people using metaphors and symbols in his poem

Johann Wolfang von Goethe: Mahomets-Gesang

Ein “Mevlid” von Goethe, aus west östlicher divan

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: (The famous Irish writer, George Bernard Shaw, says about Prophet Muhammad (PBUH

“He must be called the savior of humanity. I believe that if a man like him were to assume the dictatorship of the modern world, he would succeed in solving the problems in a way that would bring the much needed peace and happiness. He was by far the most remarkable man that ever set foot on this earth. He preached a religion, founded a state, built a nation, laid down a moral code, initiated numerous social and political reforms, established a powerful and dynamic society to practice and represent his teachings and completely revolutionized the worlds of human thought and behavior for all times to come. HIS NAME IS “MUHAMMAD”. He was born in Arabia in the year 570 CE, Muhammad started his mission of preaching Islam, the religion of truth and the submission of man to One God, at the age of forty and died at the age of sixty-three. During this short period of 23 years of his prophethood, he changed the complete Arabian Peninsula from paganism and idolatry to worship of one God, from tribal quarrels and wars to national Solidarity and cohesion, from drunkenness and debauchery to sobriety and piety, from lawlessness and anarchy to disciplined living, from utter bankruptcy to the highest standards of moral excellence. Human history has never known such a complete transformation of a people or a place before or since. And imagine all these unbelievable wonders in just over two decades

The Genuine Islam’ Vol. 1, No. 8

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: Leo Tolstoy

“There is no doubt that Prophet Muhammad is one of the greatest reformers who served the social framework profoundly”

The Rule of Prophet Muhammad

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: Jean-Jacques Rousseau

.“Muhammad, had very sound views; he thoroughly unified his political system”

The Social Contract (1762), p. 131

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Muhammad (PBUH) and idea of brotherhood


Muhammad (PBUH) and idea of brotherhood

Karen Armstrong, English author and researcher is born in 1944. This Christian scholar was a catholic Monk for 7 years, and then she enrolled in Oxford University in 1369. She is an expert in religion and she has released 12 books about Comparative religion

While his world view is based on Christianity and western rationalism, she always has tried to study religions as a researcher. Armstrong attempted to find and link the joint foundation of Semitic religions which it is clear in his different Literature. She is the writer of selling books such as “A history of God”, “Islam: A Short History”, “Buddha

The book “Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet” that is written by her, published a month after 11 September and became the best selling of The United States. His new Islamic book “Muhammad: A Prophet for Our Time” published in 2006

: She has mentioned in his book Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet

Muhammad wasn’t an invulnerable Saint. He lived in a wild and violent society and he had to be under strict conditions to advance his goals, the conditions which today people who live in a safe society, even cannot image that …. Muhammad had received both spiritual and political gift from God while these subjects do not fit together. He believed that all people who believe are responsible for creating a healthy society based on fair and justice….. He was very gentle, passionate, flexible, honest and compassionate”

The researcher and philosopher of Islam then praise Muhammad in the following

During centuries in west, we have tried to introduce Muhammad as a rough, cruel militant and selfish politician whereas he was a Passionate and compassionate man insofar as he refused to hurt animals

“Doubtless, Muhammad showcased the idea of brotherhood in his behavior at the highest level… day by day he became more popular among his people, people who were comfort and happy Despite the constant threat of enemies. Muhammad disliked making a gap between him and his people by determining rough and one-way conditions. In no way, he didn’t like to be praised by aristocratic and admiration titles. He always was modest and simple and he often tried to sit among poorest people

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The Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and his Wives


The Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and his Wives

An attempt to explain why the author of this article fell in love with the Prophet Muhammad and Islam

Writing about the Holy Prophet (PBUH) of Islam is a gigantic undertaking.  I must confess that I am neither a scholar, nor have I studied Islam for a great many years, so every single statement I make comes with the limitation of one who has great love, but is still lacking in great subject knowledge, and indeed in correct expression at times.

The main reason I am undertaking this article is because it is through the personality of the Prophet (PBUH) that I found Islam, and in particular through recognising him as an embodiment of all those attributes that we associate with “good”. As I had misconceptions about why he had so many wives, it was striking that it was my revised understanding of the relationship with his wives that made me embrace Islam

If I succeed in communicating to the reader the exemplary, infallible character of the Holy Prophet, and thus the most special person in the history of Islam, this undertaking is worthwhile. I hope to shed some light on the significance of his taking several wives and indeed the love he shared in his marriages

(The general personality of the Holy Prophet (PBUH

With the cynicism and lack of morals rife in our 21st century, it is difficult for some to even imagine a character as unblemished and pure as the Holy Prophet (PBUH). The infallibility which he possessed was of course because of his being chosen as the final Prophet by God. To grasp such a fine character, we should think of all the positive attributes a person may have, and then understand that the Prophet possessed every single one of them, and possibly even ones we did not think of.  Fortunately, there are many traditions that narrate his exemplary character

The uncle of the Prophet’s first wife, Khadijahh, said of the Prophet, “his only defect is that he is the root of nobility and greatness and a branch of esteem and honour and incomparable in high morals, famous for his knowledge and excellence…his defect is that he is the moon of the earth and the sun of the sky. His talk is sweeter than honey and his character exemplary in beauty.” Hayat Al- Qulub

An equally beautiful anecdote is this one: “Once, when they came to the Prophet promising him wealth and power, the prophet told them, using metaphorical language, that if they were to put the sun in the palm of his right hand and the moon in the palm of his left hand he would not turn away from obeying the unique God or refrain from performing his mission.” (Shi’ah

As the Holy Prophet is held in high esteem, “there is nobody who does not know the virtues and grace of Muhammad (PBUH) and does not desire to give his daughter in marriage to him.” (Hayat Al-Qulub

The Holy Prophet’s marriage to his first wife, Khadijahh, is a beautiful love story

When the Prophet is 25 years old, he meets Khadijahh, who at that point in time is 15 years older, 40, and who has been married twice before him. Khadijah is described as a woman of considerable wealth, beauty, and intellect, and also as a lady of noble character. “Since Khadijah is convinced of Muhammad’s gracefulness and greatness, she is ready to marry him.” (Hayat Al-Qulub

It is narrated about her that when she first meets the Prophet, she says, “By Allah, in my eyes, whatever is there in this world is nothing in comparison to you. By Allah, O Muhammad! I consider myself a slave girl for you…how can one who loves you more than her life give anything else than affection to you…” (Hayat Al-Qulub)

Lady Khadijah used her great wealth after her marriage to the Prophet to assist him to promulgate Islam, and she sacrificed all her wealth for this, without ever complaining about the privations of her new life. Fifteen years into their marriage, when the Prophet (PBUH) was aged 40, and she was 55, his Prophethood started. Lady Khadijah bore him 1 children, of whom Fatima Zahra would go on to marry the Prophet’s cousin, Ali Ibn Abi Talib (PBUH). The fruit of this union would be the Prophet’s grandchildren, the Second Imam, Imam Hassan, and his brother, the Third Imam, Imam Hussain, as well as their sister Lady Zeinab.

It is narrated that when Lady Khadijah died, “the bliss for Muhammad, of married life, also departed with her. To the end of his life, he reminisced about her, and remembered her with love, affection and gratitude.” (A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims)

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) was 50 when she died at 65 years of age, and in their 25 years of marriage she was the only woman he married. The marriage of the Prophet to Khadijah serves as an example to all married couples on how to conduct themselves.

.The wives of the Holy Prophet had a role to play during the Prophethood

In the history of Islam, the role of women in the promulgation of the faith is significant, as are the traditions of them being witness to significant decisions.

Shias and Sunnis have in continuous narrations, mentioned that the first man (male) to believe in the holy religion of Islam was Ali Ibn Abi Talib (PBUH), and the first female was Lady Khadijah (PBUH). (Hayat Al-Qulub) As was already mentioned, she was a great support to her husband in the early days of spreading the message of Islam.

This is narrated by Ibn Babawayh from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (PBUH) through :authentic chains of narration

The Holy Prophet said to Umm Salma (in presence of Ali Ibn Abi Talib): “O Umm Salma, listen to this and be a witness that Ali Ibn Abi Talib (PBUH) is my Vizier in the world and the hereafter.” (Hayat Al-Qulub) This is a significant message, and the Prophet delivers it with his Umm Salma, his second wife, as a witness.

The Prophet (PBUH) takes eleven wives after the death of Lady Khadijah

Even after his first wife dies, he initially takes only one new wife, often referred to as Umm Salma, a widow with 5 children, and his only wife for four years. He goes on to marry another widow, and also two women who are captives and whom he frees, then marries. One of these eleven wives gifts herself to him. He “often tried to win the loyalty of a clan or tribe by marrying one of its women.” (eg. Umm Habiba bint Abu Sufyan, Safiya bint Akhtab) (A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims)

“When Mohammed Mustafa (may God bless him and his progeny) died in 632, he had nine wives in his harem.”  (A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims) This is a fact which is often misunderstood by the West; having more than one wife is not common practice in the West, indeed is generally illegal to do so. Considering that several of these wives were widows, or had been divorced, there is obviously a different motivation at play here.

“All the wives of the Holy Prophet except Ummu’l – Mu’minin Khadijah are of equal rank.” (Peshawar Nights) There were also two special slave girls whom the Holy Prophet did not marry though. One of these two slave girls was Mariya, the only woman except for Khadijah who bore him children; she gave birth to Ibrahim, however, the child died in his first year of life.

Only one of his wives was a virgin when he married her. As everything has a purpose, there is a purpose to the Prophet taking widows and divorced women for wives, as well as captives to whom he restores their freedom.

?What qualities should one look for in a spouse

Imam Jawad (PBUH) wrote in a letter: “Whoever solicits you in marriage and you are convinced of his religion and his honesty, then do unite with him in wedlock.” (A Bundle of Flowers)

Once a man told Imam Hussain (PBUH) that he had a daughter and asked whom he (PBUH) would advise him to give her to in marriage, and he said: “Give her in marriage to someone who (has Faith and) fears Allah, Almighty and Glorious, because he will love and respect her, and if he becomes angry with her, he will not hurt her.” (A Bundle of Flowers)

These are not the qualities that are the main motivators in many Western marriages, it seems. Yet the importance of faith in shaping a good person is narrated in many traditions;

Imam Musa Kazim (PBUH) narrated from his father Imam Sadiq (PBUH) from the Holy Prophet (PBUH) who said: “However much the Faith of a man increases, his regard for women increases.” (A Bundle of Flowers)

Imam Sadiq (PBUH) said: “Everyone who intensifies love for us (Ahl al-Bayt) intensifies love for his wife, too.” (A Bundle of Flowers)

The special relationship between faith and felicity is illuminated in this narrated tradition from the Holy Prophet (PBUH):

“The example of my household (Lady Fatima Zahra (PBUH) and the twelve Imams) is like that of the Noah’s (PBUH) ship. Who so ever boards it will get rescued (salvation) and the one who opposes the boarding of it, gets drowned.” (Fascinating Discourses)

?What are the standards of behavior expected from spouses

The teachings of the Holy prophet reveal great tenderness and steadfastness towards the wife and even 1,400 years later provide a comprehensive guidance to married couples. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said:” Any man who is patient with the wife who is bad tempered, and seeks that patience from Allah, He bestows him the reward given to the thankful ones.” (A Bundle of Flowers)

Imam Baqir (PBUH) said: “He who takes a woman (marries) should certainly respect her, because the wife of anyone of you is a means of your pleasure, so the one who marries a woman should not spoil or disgrace her (by disregarding her respectable rights).” (A Bundle of Flowers)

“An ardent (honourable) one never at all commits adultery.” (Fascinating Discourses)

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said:” A man’s word telling his wife: “I love you” never will quit her heart.” (A Bundle of Flowers)

“Islam does not permit the burdening of wives with heavy duties.” (For a Better Future)

Amir al Mu’mineen Imam Ali (PBUH) said: “The worst man is he who restricts his household.” (A Bundle of Flowers)

Unjust control of a man over his wife is not justified: “When Islam gave this guardianship to man, it ordered him to be fair, honest, and wise. If man is not so, then the wrong lies in man himself and not in the verdict of guardianship.” (For a Better Future) The husband has the right to convey guardianship to his wife as well; guardianship is a positive thing as long as the husband has positive qualities. (For a Better Future)

Regarding having several wives, the Prophet (PBUH) said,” He, who has two wives but does not treat them equally concerning sentiment and financial affairs, will come on the Day of Resurrection handcuffed and bent over, and then he will enter into the fire.” (For a Better Future)

 The Holy Prophet had regard for women in his final moments of life

“According to existing traditions, the last words on his lips were advice concerning slaves and women.” (Shi’ah)

Summing up my points, I hope it has become apparent that

  • The Holy Prophet was a person endowed only with good attributes
  • His marriage to Khadijah is a very special love story
  • His subsequent marriages provided security for divorced, widowed women, freedom to captives, the joining of tribes through marriage into other tribes
  • The traditions narrated through the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and the Ahl al-Bayt (PBUH) can illuminate to us in the 21st century how to achieve marital felicity

Zeinab Saani

Australian writer

Bibliography

Hayat Al Qulub, A detailed Biography of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)

Abu Ali al Fadl ibn al Hasan Tabarsi, Beacons of Light

A Bundle of Flowers; from the Garden of Traditions of the Prophet (PBUH) and Ahlul Bayt (PBUH)

Abdul Adkeem al-Muhtadi al-Bahrani, For a Better Future

Sayyid Ali Ashgar Kazwy, A Restatement of The History of Islam and Muslims

Sultanal-Waizin Shirazi, Peshawar Nights

Fascinating Discourses of Fourteen Infallibles (PBUH)

Allamah Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Tabatabai, Shi’ah


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